New blog on the NCVO site: PRESERVING YOUR CHARITY’S ARCHIVES: FIRST STEPS

I just wanted to post a quick message to direct you to a blog I have just written for the National Council of Voluntary Organisations (NCVO). It is about the British Academy Project for which I am the Research Assistant and provides information for voluntary organisations on how they can get involved in the first stages of the ‘Digitising the Mixed Economy of Welfare in Britain’ project.

You can also register for our launch event on 5th of June, Recording the Voluntary Sector. We will have speakers and workshop sessions on a range of different topics including funding, digitisation, depositing archives and collaborating with academics. Full details and registration here.

Any questions, feel free to contact me via the project blog or here! Thanks.

The History of Youth Cultures: Understanding International Influences, National Frameworks and Local Lived Experiences

This post originally appeared on the Four Nations History Blog in February 2015.

Different regional, national and international perspectives are essential to understanding the history of youth cultures. Without understanding international influences, national frameworks and local lived experiences we cannot fully understand how young people have formed and shaped their cultures.

In Four Nations terms the frameworks of Youth Service policy are decidedly English. The Youth Service after the Second World War only included England and Wales in the landmark 1960 policy The Albemarle Report, even then with scant reference to Wales.[i] However, when looking at the regional youth club associations and individual clubs themselves it became clear that, even at the time, national policy frameworks were only so useful in understanding youth clubs and how between one quarter and one third of people used them.[ii] Youth clubs varied hugely, influenced by a range of factors, including the young people that attended them.

For example, in Liverpool there were clubs supported by long-established links with public schools, settlement clubs, church clubs, grassroots community clubs and roving youth workers in perceived trouble-spots using a minibus as a club. To say that these clubs existed against a local backdrop of industrial decline, unemployment and changes to housing in Liverpool in the post-war period would be to do a disservice to the way Liverpool’s unique history shaped the youth work happening there. It was a dynamic relationship with youth work organisations responding actively to City-wide and micro-local circumstances.

Youth culture also had a role to play, and one which cut across national boundaries. Adrian Horn’s discussion of Americanisation is pertinent here when looking at the local variations adopted by beat and skiffle groups in Liverpool to create the ‘Merseybeat’ sound.[iii] This sound was nurtured in the local youth clubs; places where bands formed, practiced and performed alongside the City’s central commercial venues. There were perhaps ten bands playing the local scene for each one that gained international or national recognition, but for the young people attending dances and live music in Liverpool’s Youth Clubs they were all part of their local youth culture.

This is evident in London too. In 1960s London, we are accustomed to hearing about ‘Swinging London’ and its vibrant scene. However, South London had its own variants of youth culture and subculture, including rival Mod and Rocker youth clubs and local sound system cultures. The glamour of the west-end clubs existed for the few, and as David Fowler rightly points out, it was the local Palais de Danse in Streatham rather than the glitzy Soho nightclub that was the site of everyday youth cultures, as indeed was the youth club for those that used them.[iv]

This indicates that both one and four nations approaches to the history of youth have their limitations. What is required is an understanding of how international influences, national structures and local circumstances came to shape young people growing up in the post-war period. This research began with an examination of 25 years of policy on youth and the Youth Service. It included reference to the problems of youth such as delinquency and indeed local case studies have added grounded examples to how youth work and delinquency can be linked. See Kate Bradley’s earlier post on this blog for more. Often though, national policy blurred and ameliorated as much as it revealed.

What does this mean for Four Nations frameworks? As previous posts have rightly pointed out, there is immense value in looking at our approach to history using the lens of different nations. The same applies to looking from local perspectives, though we should bear the metropolitan fallacy in mind. It is not that a four nations or national approach is not appropriate, but by delving below the national level to the micro local, we are encouraged to think critically about how we use these categories, to use them more explicitly and to talk to fellow historians about what we assume, conceal and reveal in the process. Looking at national youth organisations and literature on youth cultures has provided a national context, but is only by trying to understand youth cultures within individual youth clubs and local communities that this research has come to understand the myriad forms they have taken and the fluidity within them.

[i] Ministry of Education, Report of the Committee Appointed by the Minister of Education on The Youth Service in England and Wales (Albemarle Report), London, HMSO, 1960

[ii] Davies, Bernard, A History of the Youth Service in England, Volume 1, Leicester, National Youth Agency, 1999, p. 56

[iii] Horn, Adrian, Juke Box Britain- Americanisation and youth culture 1945-1960, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2009

[iv] Fowler, David, Youth Culture in Modern Britain c.1920-c.1970,Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2008

Digitising the Mixed Economy of Welfare in Britain

In an earlier blog post I talked about my visits to wild archives and some of the problems inherent in using these kinds of sources. At the time I was aware of the Campaign for Voluntary Sector Archives and the work Georgina Brewis had been doing, for example her blog for NCVO Eight reasons charities should be interested in their archives.

A surprisingly well-ordered wild archive

A surprisingly well-ordered wild archive, but what should the organisation do with it in the long term?

Georgina has since put in, and won a bid for funding for a British Academy Research Project on Digitising the Mixed Economy of Welfare in Britain which aims to look at best practice and practical guidance for voluntary organisations on digitising and preserving their archives. I am delighted to have been appointed as a part-time Research Assistant on this project.

Unsurprisingly, I wholeheartedly agree about the value we should be placing on voluntary sector archives. Not only are they invaluable to researchers but they can also be a huge asset for the voluntary organisations themselves; they are an evidence base, they contain crucial insights into an organisation’s history and identity and they contribute to a wider understanding of the place of that organisation in our society. Even outside of academia, understanding the full history of welfare and society is important at a time of significant change in our welfare state. Without recourse to the archives, histories and identities of voluntary groups, their role and importance may be lost in wider and public understandings of what welfare is, as well as what it has been.

I have several exciting challenges in this Research Assistant role; organising the launch event at the British Academy on the 5th June 2015, learning about digitisation and records management, drafting guidance for voluntary sector organisations, and piloting and refining this guidance with voluntary sector partners.

There will be updates on the project via the NCVO blog, voluntarysectorarchives.org.uk, the University College London Institute of Education and a range of partner organisations. I will also be posting some updates here about my role and perspective. In the meantime, I have plenty to be getting on with!

Child Poverty Action Group Witness Seminar

On 6th January 2015 I attended a Witness Seminar at the Institute for Contemporary British History on the history of the Child Poverty Action Group (CPAG) in the 70s and 80s, as part of their forthcoming 50th Birthday celebrations. Not only was I interested to hear about how such a high-profile organisation had handled the huge political and policy changes of those particular two decades, I was also interested to see this group form of oral history in action for the first time. Continue reading

Archives in the wild: researching local youth clubs in London and Liverpool

Early in my PhD I had a conversation with my supervisors about locating the relevant sources for my research. We knew it would be a challenge and it was a significant factor in how I chose my case studies. While the main youth associations in London and Liverpool had both deposited significant amounts of material in the London Metropolitan Archive and Liverpool Record Office respectively, until the bulk of the research began it was hard to know what individual club archives would be found, and indeed what state they would be in. Finding the stories of individual clubs, members and workers was one of the reasons I wanted to do this research and so I also chose to do oral history, but I hoped that some clubs would still have documents from the last few decades. Continue reading

Liverpool old and new: the Museum of Liverpool and Liver Building

Walking Liverpool: dynamic understandings of youth and youth work in Liverpool

I have just got back from an exhausting but excellent research trip to Liverpool where I have been immersing myself in the history of youth clubs and youth work as well as getting to know the city a little better. On the second day, while visiting a club whose papers I have read, I was reminded of Lucie Matthews Jones Blog ‘A Walking Historian’ in which she describes the connection that walking can give her to her research. Having spent time this week exploring the spaces in and around some youth clubs in Liverpool I have felt a little of what Lucie describes in her blog. I understand better how the spaces clubs occupy shape and have been shaped by the City, its history and its people. This in turn gives me a different appreciation of these places when I see them discussed in documents. They are not passive, static buildings and streets. They have an active, dynamic role to play in shaping the young people and youth work histories of Liverpool. Continue reading

How long does a PhD take?

This title could well read ‘How long does a PhD take!’ That would perhaps reflect the sense that though I have travelled a great distance towards completing my PhD in the last three years, it is not finished yet. I am entering my continuation year, or ‘writing-up’ period as it is also known. The terms of my funding mean that I will soon stop receiving the payments that have sustained me for the last three years. I am looking for work to fill the gap and know from colleagues who were never lucky enough to get funding that this will mean new pressures to deal with.

However, that is not what has me blogging today. I am blogging because it has become clear to me over the last year that expectations of how long it takes to complete a PhD thesis vary and sometimes contradict each other. This has meant confusion, pressure and doubt about myself which has not helped me get any nearer to submitting. In writing this post I want to start a conversation about how we set expectations with PhD students and how we develop systems and processes that deal with the variation between PhD students and theses. Continue reading